, with a population of 4.1 million, is the second-largest city in Egypt,
and is the country's largest seaport, serving about 80% of Egypt's imports and exports.
Alexandria is also an important tourist resort.
Alexandria extends about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in north-central Egypt.
It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library),
It is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez,
another city in Egypt.
In ancient times,
was one of the most famous cities in the world.
It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great.
It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years,
until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641 when a new capital was founded at
Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo).
was known because of
its lighthouse (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World;
its library (the largest library in the ancient world); and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa,
one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the
harbour of Alexandria,
which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before
the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there,
and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
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